龙鹅鹅业朗德鹅肥肝饲养管理
Dragon goose goose fatty liver feeding and management
朗德鹅又称西南灰鹅,原产于法国西南部的朗德地区,是大型托罗士鹅和体形校小的玛瑟布鹅经过长期杂交选育而成,是世界著名的肥肝专用品种,专家推崇的肥肝型用鹅。朗德鹅体形中等,羽毛灰褐色,颈部接近黑色,腹部毛色较浅呈银灰色,腹下部则呈白色,也有部分白羽个体或灰白色个体。通常情况下,灰羽毛较松,白羽毛较紧贴,喙橘黄色,胫蹼肉色,灰羽在喙尖部有一深色部分。朗德鹅适应性强,成活率高,抗病易养,能适应各种生活环境,产肝性好,容易育肥,是法国当前生产鹅肥肝的主要品种。
Landes Goose also known as southwest greylag geese, native to southwestern France Landes, is a large supporting Luo Shi goose and a school of small Martha cloth after long hybrid breeding goose, is a world famous fat liver special breed, a respected expert in goose fat liver. Landes Goose body medium, grayish-brown plumage, neck near black, abdominal hair color is shallow silver-gray, lower abdomen is white, also have some white or off-white individual individual. Typically, grey feathers loose, white feather is snugly, beak orange webbed, tibia ash plume in flesh, beaked tip has a dark part. Goose adaptability, high survival rate, resistance easy to support, can adapt to all kinds of living environment, produce hepatic good, easy fatten, France is the current production of the main varieties of goose fat liver.
  我国养鹅数量多,这是我国发展肥肝生产的基础,有利于形成肥肝生产基地。我国多数鹅种虽体形偏小,但繁殖力高,通过品种间杂交选用优秀肝用杂交组合,或引进国外肥肝性能好的为父本,与我国优良鹅种配套生产更多数量、肥肝性能好的杂交商品鹅,加快肥肝生产步伐,可望在较短时间内生产出较高等级的肥肝。但肥肝生产的数量和质量与国外先进水平是无法相比的,这种现状与我国养鹅大国的地位很不相称。我国劳动力充足,劳动力价格极具竞争力,适宜发展肥肝生产这种劳动密集型产业;不仅如此,我国盛产填肥专用的饲料,具备规模生产肥肝的潜力。通过各种研究提高肥肝生产水平和深加工能力,我国肥肝生产将会有大的发展,生产肥肝可望成为我国优势新兴产业。
Our country raises goose number, this is our country development of fat liver production basis, is conducive to the formation of fat liver production base. The majority of our goose is a small, but high fecundity, through hybridization between varieties selection of excellent liver using a hybrid combination, or the introduction of foreign fatty liver performance good as male parent, and our excellent supporting the production of more number of goose fatty liver performance, good commercial hybrid goose fat liver production, to speed up the pace, is expected to be in the within a relatively short time to produce a higher level of fat liver. But the fat liver production quantity and quality with foreign advanced level is compared, this kind of current situation and our country raises goose to superpower status is not very symmetric. China's abundant labor force, labor force price competitive, suitable for the development of fat liver production of this labor intensive industry; not only that, my country is rich in fill fertilizer dedicated feed, with the scale of production of fat liver potential. Through a variety of research to improve the level of fat liver production and deep processing capacity, our country fat liver production will have great progress, the production of fat liver is expected to become our country advantage of emerging industries.
  鹅肥肝是一种高级营养食品,质地细嫩,味道鲜美,脂香醇厚,营养丰富,是公认的世界三大美味佳肴(鹅肥肝、鱼子酱、松茸蘑)之一。它具有极高的营养价值和特殊的保健作用,是当前国内外市场畅销食品之一。肥肝虽然通过脂肪沉积而形成,但所含脂肪大多是对人体有益的不饱和脂肪酸,肥肝中的不饱和脂肪酸含量占整个脂肪酸的65%~68%,其中油酸61%~62%,亚油酸1%~2%,棕桐油酸3%~4%;饱和脂肪酸占33%~35%,其中软脂酸21%~22%,硬脂酸11%~12%,肉豆落酸1%。不饱和脂肪酸可降低人体血液中的胆固醇水平,减少胆固醇类物质在血管壁上的沉积,减轻与延缓动脉粥样硬化的形成,对健康长寿有益。肥肝中的亚油酸属人体内不能合成的必需脂肪酸,只能从食物中摄取。
Goose fat liver is a senior nutrition food, delicate texture, taste delicious, fat mellow, rich nutrition, is recognized as the world's three largest delicacies ( goose fat liver, caviar, one of Tricholoma matsutake mushroom). It has a very high nutritional value and special health care function, is the current domestic and international market selling food. Fat liver although through fat deposition and the formation of fat, but most is beneficial to human body fat liver of unsaturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acid content in total fatty acids of 65% ~ 68%, 61% ~ 62% which oleic acid, linoleic acid 1% ~ 2%, 3% ~ 4% palmitic acid; unsaturated fatty acids 33% ~ 35%, 21% ~ 22% which palmitic acid, stearic acid 11% ~ 12%, meat and beans drop acid 1%. Unsaturated fatty acids can reduce the human blood cholesterol level, reduce cholesterol substances in the blood vessel wall deposition, reduce and delay the formation of atherosclerosis, on health and longevity benefits. Fat liver of linoleic acid in the human body can not be synthesized is essential fatty acids, only uptake from food.
  据法国报道,鹅的肥肝与正常肝比较,卵磷脂增加4倍,甘油三脂增加176倍,脱氧核糖核酸和核糖核酸增加1倍,酶的活性增加3倍,还含有多种维生素,因此肥肝脂香醇厚,香味独特,营养丰富,滋补身体。
According to the report, the goose fat liver and normal liver, lecithin increases 4 times, glycerin three greases increase 176 times, deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid increases 1 times, the enzyme activity increased 3 times, also contains a variety of vitamins, so fat liver fat mellow, unique flavor, rich nutrition, nourishing the body.
  广西容县佳佳食品有限责任公司与世界最大的种鹅育种集团之一法国古尔蒙公司合作,建设广西鹅肥肝产业化开发项目工程,并开发鹅肝酱、分割肉熟制品、鹅毛等深加工系列产品,在容县建成全国最大的法国朗德鹅孵化和养殖基地,及全国最大的鹅肥肝生产加工和出口基地。依托这一规模和品种优势,选用纯种朗德鹅,在饲粮中添加不同油脂进行超饲养试验,研究不同油脂对朗德鹅肥肝及生产性能的影响。
Guangxi Jia Rongxian County food limited liability company and the world 's largest species of goose breeding group of French Gul Mongolian company cooperation, the construction of Guangxi goose fat liver industrialization development project, and the development of foie gras, meat cooked products, feather and other series products deep processing, built in Rongxian County, the country's largest France Landes Goose hatching and breeding base, and the country's largest goose fat liver production and processing and export base. Relying on the dimensions and breed advantage, choose thoroughbred goose, in different dietary fat for feeding trial, study different oils on fatty liver and production performance of.
试验研究
Experimental study
  选择80日龄健康朗德鹅、大雁鹅,随机分为4组,饲粮在原有填喂配方基础上分别添加等量2%的玉米油、豆油、猪油和鱼油。填喂分预饲期和填喂期两部分,其中预饲期内以舍饲为主,适当放牧为辅。自由采食富有营养的混合饲料,玉米含量占60%,原有混合料占40%。预饲期日粮中的玉米应以粒状为主。用量为每日180克~200克,让鹅群一次很快吃完;最好在饥饿时撒喂整粒玉米,让鹅只抢食。
80 day age health Landes Goose, goose of wild goose, were randomly divided into 4 groups, in the original formula diet fed separately based on add equal 2% corn oil, soybean oil, lard and fish oil. Feeding branch pre feeding period and feeding of two parts, wherein the feeding period to abandon raise give priority to, proper grazing supplemented. Free feeding nutritious mixed feed, corn content of 60%, the original mixture accounted for 40%. The feeding of diets in Maize with the grain oriented. Daily amount is 180 grams to 200 grams, let the geese once soon after; the best when hungry and feed the whole grain corn, let goose food.
  在饲喂玉米的同时配给一定的青绿饲料作为补充,这样有利于锻炼食道,使食道柔软、膨大,消化道扩张性能良好,从而对填饲的耐抗性增强,减轻鹅只对填饲的应激反应。填饲期鹅在事先设计好的填饲笼上饲养,限制填饲鹅的活动,减少能量消耗,加快填饲鹅的肥育和肝内脂肪的沉积。鹅舍通气良好,并辅以水帘等降温设备,舍内光线稍暗,周围环境安静。填饲后期,鹅体重迅速增加和肥肝逐步形成,所以要轻捉轻放,尽量减少对鹅的惊扰。平时不断给予清洁饮水,及时清粪,保持圈内的清洁卫生。经常检查鹅群是否有消化不良或其他疾病,并作及时处理。
In the feeding corn at the same time allocated to a certain green feed as a supplement, so conducive to exercise the esophagus, esophageal soft, dilated, digestive tract dilatation of good performance, so as to enhance the resistance of feeding, reduce the geese on feeding of the stress response. Goose feeding period prior to design good feeding cage rearing, restricted feeding goose activity, reduce energy consumption, accelerate feeding goose fattening and liver fat deposition. Goose house of good ventilation, and supplemented with water curtain and other cooling equipment, interior light slightly dark, quiet surroundings. Feeding period, goose fat liver weight increased rapidly and gradually formed, so light and light, minimizing goose disturb. Usually continue to give clean drinking water, timely clear dung, retaining ring clean. Always check the geese have indigestion or other diseases, and timely treatment.
  填喂周期为18天~20天,结束后禁食18小时进行屠宰,屠宰后的胴体放入-20℃的冰柜中冷冻,将冷冻后的胴体腹部向上放置在操作台上,尾部朝操作者。用刀从龙骨前端沿龙骨脊左测向龙骨后端划破皮脂,然后用刀从龙骨后端向肛门处沿胶中线割开皮脂和腹膜,从裸露胸骨处,用大剪刀从龙骨后端沿龙骨脊向前剪开胸骨,打开胸腔,使内脏暴露。将肥肝与其他脏器分离。操作时不能划破肥肝,分离时不能划破胆囊,以保持肝的完整。如果不慎将胆囊碰破,应立即用水将肥肝上的胆汁冲洗干净。
Feeding cycle for 18 days to 20 days, after fasting for 18 hours for slaughter, slaughter and carcass into a - 20 degrees C freezer freezer, frozen carcass abdomen upward arranged on the operating platform, the tail towards the operator. A knife from the front along the keel keel left direction finding the back end of the keel cut sebum, then with a knife from the back end of the keel to the anus place along the adhesive line cut sebum and peritoneal, from bare sternum shears, used from the back end of the keel along the keel to cut open the chest, the sternum, the visceral exposure. Fatty liver and other viscera separation will. Operation cannot cut fat liver, separation cannot cut gallbladder, in order to maintain the integrity of the liver. If you break into the gallbladder, water immediately will be fat liver bile rinse.
  操作人员每取完1只肥肝,用清洁水冲洗一下双手。取出的肥肝应适当进行整型处理,用小刀除去附在肝上的神经纤维、结缔组织、残留脂肪和背囊下的绿色渗出物,切除肝上的淤血、出血斑和破损部分,放在0.9%的盐水中浸泡10分钟~15分钟,捞出沥干,放在盘中称重。然后放在-18℃~-25℃的冷冻箱中冷冻保存。取出肝的胴体,逐次将各部分的组织分离。
Operators each take after the 1 fat liver with clean water, wash hands. Removal of fat liver should be appropriately shaping processing, used a knife to remove attached to the liver, nerve fibers of the connective tissue, residual fat and bags under green exudate, resection of liver congestion, hemorrhage and damaged portion, on 0.9% of the salt in the water for 10 minutes to 15 minutes, remove and drain, put on after weighing. Then put in the - 18 degrees to - 25 degrees C cooler in cryopreservation. Remove liver carcass, successive the partial separation of the tissue.
结果分析
Analysis of the results
  通过比较分析,填饲后,各组肥肝均重分别为1.1867千克、1.2094千克、1.0137千克和1.0193千克,玉米油组、豆油组、鱼油组分别比猪油组重173.23克、195.71克和56.32克,由此可见植物油组肥肝均重明显大于动物油组,各组间差异显著,说明豆油与玉米油对肥肝均重影响较为明显。在耗料量和产肝重量比方面鱼油组最高,玉米油其次,而猪油处于第三位,豆油组最低。而在屠宰性能的比较方面,四种油脂的添加均未对各项指标产生较大的差异。
Through the comparative analysis, after each feeding, fatty liver were heavy respectively 1.1867 kg, 1.2094 kg, 1.0137 kg and 1.0193 kg, corn oil, soybean oil, fish oil group group group compared with lard group weighs 173.23 grams, 195.71 grams and 56.32 grams of fat liver, thus vegetable oil group were significantly larger than animals heavy oil group, a significant difference between groups, soybean oil and corn oil on the description of fatty liver were heavy influence to be more obvious. In the feed consumption and fatty liver weight ratio was the highest aspect of fish oil, corn oil and lard, which is in the third position, the soybean oil group minimum. While in the slaughter performance comparison of four kinds of oil, add not to have bigger difference indicators.
  作为动物饲粮中的主要成分之一的油脂为人体生长发育需要提供能量、必需脂肪酸、脂溶性维生素等,促进和调节生理机能能源的利用以及改善脂溶性维生素在体内的转运等营养功能。一般认为脂肪可提高能量浓度,从而提高畜禽生产性能和饲料的利用率。油脂对家禽还具有特殊的能量效果,添加在日粮中的油脂,其能量值并不是简单地和其他养分能量的累加,还能与其他营养成分起协同作用,提高日粮  中其他组分能量的利用价值,使油脂自身的代谢能值超过总能。
Animal feed as one of the main ingredients in oil for human growth and development needs to provide energy, essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, promote and regulate the physiological function of energy utilization and improvement of fat soluble vitamins in vivo transport nutrition function. Is generally believed that fat can improve energy concentration, and thus increasing livestock and poultry production performance and feed utilization rate. Grease on poultry also has a special energy effect, added in diets in the grease, the energy value is not simple ground and other nutrient energy accumulation, but also with other nutrients play a synergistic effect, increasing dietary other components of energy use value, make the oil itself metabolizable energy values than always.
  大量的研究表明,油脂的能量代谢与其组分和性质关系密切。油脂代谢能同油脂中饱和脂肪酸与不饱和脂肪酸比例及游离脂肪酸含量都有一定的关系。家禽对不饱和脂肪酸的利用率明显高于饱和脂肪酸。添加2%大豆油明显提高动物饲料的代谢能值。油脂THE随油脂中不饱和脂肪酸及游离脂肪酸量增加而增加,饱和脂肪酸的递增而降低。在植物油中,大豆油的磷脂和不饱和脂肪酸含量较高。
A large number of studies show that, energy metabolism and lipid compositions and properties of close relationship. Lipid metabolism with oil saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid ratio and content of free fatty acid has a certain relationship. Poultry to unsaturated fatty acid utilization rate was significantly higher than that of saturated fatty acid. Add 2% soybean oil is obviously improved animal feedstuffs metabolizable energy values. Grease grease THE with unsaturated fatty acid and free fatty acid content increased, saturated fatty acid increases and decreases. The vegetable oil, soybean phospholipid and higher content of unsaturated fatty acid.
  在超饲养饲粮中添加不同油脂,提高了超饲养饲粮能量,结果表明,植物油组产肝性能明显优于动物油组,其中豆油组肥肝性能最佳,分析其原因,主要是因为油脂代谢能与油脂中饱和脂肪酸与不饱和脂肪酸比例、碘值及游离脂肪酸含量都有一定的关系,植物油不饱和脂肪酸明显高于动物油,而家禽对不饱和脂肪酸的利用率明显高于饱和脂肪酸。所以填饲朗德鹅对植物油的利用率高于动物油,添加植物油能提高超饲养饲粮的能量,从而影响超饲养效果
In the fed different dietary fats, improves the overfeeding diet energy, the results showed that plant oil, fatty liver performance is superior to animal oil group, wherein the soybean oil group on fatty liver performance best, analyse its reason, is mainly because the oil metabolism and fat saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid, iodine value and proportion free fatty acids have a certain relationship, vegetable oil fatty acids was significantly higher than that of animal oil, and poultry to unsaturated fatty acid utilization rate was significantly higher than that of saturated fatty acid. Therefore overfeeding Landes Goose to plant oil utilization rate is higher than that of animal oil, adding plant oil can improve the overfeeding diet energy, thus affecting the super feeding effect

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